Diabetes Mellitus, a metabolic syndrome

What is diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic syndrome. It affects glucose of body and results in hyperglycemia. Glucose is important for cells and is source of energy for cells. Brain cells needs energy in the form of glucose. Any decline in glucose utilization by the brain cells can result in death of brain cells. Excessive glucose is harmful for human body. It is a chronic disease in which either there is inadequate production of insulin. Or decrease sensitivity to insulin. Either way it results in increase glucose level in body which is harmful for body.

Types of diabetes mellitus

These are the types of diabetes

  • Type 1 diabetes

It is a type of diabetes in which there is insufficient insulin production in the body. Insulin is produced by pancreas any damage to pancreas can result in inadequate insulin production in the body. It usually affects children and young. It is called as insulin-dependent-diabetes. Such people need daily dose of insulin to control their sugar level.

  • Type 2 diabetes

In this condition there is decreased sensitivity to insulin. External insulin can not alter the sugar level of body because of increased resistance of body cells to insulin. It is more common in middle aged people.

  • Pre-diabetes

It is a stage before the development of type 2 diabetes. In this condition blood glucose levels are high than normal but not high enough to consider it as diabetes.

  • Gestational diabetes

This condition involves woman in pregnancy. And it resolves after pregnancy.

Other types includes

  • Cystic Fibrosis related diabetes
  • Monogenic diabetes
  • Drug induced diabetes
  • Diabetes insipidus

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

It is a chronic disease in which either there is inadequate production of insulin or decrease sensitivity to insulin.

These are symptoms of diabetes

  • Polyuria
  • polydipsia
  • polyphagia
  • frequent urination
  • slow healing
  • numbness in hands and feet
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • weight loss

Risk factors of DM

These are risk factors of diabetes

For type 1 risk factors are

It is also called as insulin-dependent-diabetes.

  1. Positive family history
  2. Environmental factors
  3. Geographical distribution

For type 2 risk factors are

External insulin can not alter the sugar level of body because of increased resistance of body cells to insulin.

  1. Obesity
  2. Inactivity
  3. Race
  4. Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  5. Gestational diabetes
  6. High BP
  7. Abnormal cholesterol level

For Gestational Diabetes

  1. Age
  2. Race
  3. Weight
  4. Family history

Complications of DM

These are the complications of DM

Macrovascular and microvascular complications includes retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, CVS diseases. Other complications includes frequent infections, skin conditions and depressions. Complications of gestational DM are excessive growth. DM later in life and death.

How to diagnose diabetes?

These criteria can help you diagnose diabetes and help in identification pf pre-diabetic stage.

Type of testNormal
(mg/dL)
Prediabetes
(mg/dL)
Diabetes
(mg/dL)
Fasting blood
glucose
Less than 100​100-125126 or higher
Random blood
glucose level
Less than 140​140-199200 or higher
HbA1c levelLess than 5.7%​5.7 – 6.4%6.5% or higher
OGTTLess than 140140-199200 or higher

How to manage DM?

These steps are necessary for the management of diabetes mellitus

For type 1 subcutaneous injections of insulin are given. For type 2, as there is resistance of cells to insulin so medicated drugs are given to treat it. Drugs include sulfonylureas, thiazolidinedione, biguanides and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

These lifestyle modifications are important for Diabetes

  • Increased physical activity
  • Decreasing cholesterol level
  • Maintaining blood pressure
  • Quitting smoking
  • Monitoring glucose at regular level
  • Eating healthy foods

Take home message

DM is a chronic illness. In case of diagnosis patient should be counseled about complications of disease. He should be aware of drug compliance. Tell him to modify his daily lifestyle and dietary habits. More the compliance with drugs less will be the chances for development of dreadful symptoms. With advancement in medicines and research it is less harmful now but compliance for dugs is the first management step. With advancement in medical field this chronic illness can be managed. Therefore, proper compliance and life style modifications can reduce the risk.

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