Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Overview

The polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal disorder. This disorder is shared among women of reproductive age. In this condition, there is an abnormal amount of androgens production. Androgens are male sex hormones that are usually present in small amounts in women. Because of an imbalance in hormones, women with this disease start skipping their menstrual periods, making it difficult for them to become pregnant.

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

It is called polycystic ovarian syndrome because. There is the production of numerous small fluid-filled cysts in the ovaries in this disorder. However, some women with this disorder do not produce cysts. While other women produce cysts without having any disease.

It usually affects women of childbearing age. Ranging from 15 years to 44 years of age. PCOS affects women’s ovaries. Because there is an imbalance in hormone production that regulates the normal menstrual cycle.

PCOS affects ovaries and Ovulation. In Ovulation, an egg is produced by the ovary, fertilized by a male’s sperm. Due to an imbalance in hormones level, Ovulation does not occur; this results in cysts in the ovary.

Causes of polycystic ovarian syndrome

Following are the causes of PCOS

1.Insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes)

2. Over-weight

3. It also runs in families.

4. Inflammation

Symptoms

It has the following symptoms

1.Absent or irregular periods

2. Large ovaries with cyst formation

3. Hirsutism ( Excess hair production on face, back, and chest)

4.  Heavy Bleeding

5. Acne

6. Headaches

7. Dark patches on the skin

9. Male pattern baldness

10. Weight gain

Complications of PCOS

This disorder can affect your body in multiple ways. It can result in

1.Infertility: As this disease affects Ovulation by causing an imbalance in hormone production, it can result in infertility.

2. Metabolic Syndrome: As the leading cause of PCOS is obesity so both of these can result in

  • High blood sugar in the body
  • Decreased amount of good cholesterol (HDL) and increased amount of bad cholesterol (LDL)
  • High BP

These factors can contribute to the formation of

  • Heart diseases
  • Strokes

3. Depression: Hormonal changes, unwanted hair production, and missed or heavy periods can result in anxiety and depressions in women.

4. Sleep Apnea: Obesity and PCOS can interrupt sleep at night and cause sleep apnea.

5. Endometrial Cancer: Interrupted Ovulation can result in improper shedding of the uterine lining. Because of this, there will be thickening of the uterine line resulting in endometrial cancers and heavy bleeding.

How to diagnose Polycystic ovarian syndrome

1. Clinically, it can be diagnosed by three symptoms

  • High androgen level
  • Irregular or missed periods
  •  Large ovaries with cysts

2.Pelvic Examination is also helpful in making a diagnosis. It can show any enlargement of the ovaries.

3. Blood tests can show abnormal male hormones, cholesterol level, HDL levels, and LDL on lipid profile.

4. An Ultrasound

Treatment

Change lifestyle and dietary habits: Reduced fat levels in your daily diet. Eat a healthy diet. Adopt a healthy lifestyle with exercise and increased physical activities. Reducing weight can help insulin work efficiently and can reduce the risk of PCOS.

Medications:

1.To regulate your periods

  • Progestin Therapy: Taking 10- 14 tablets can help in regulating periods
  • A combination of birth control pills can reduce the risk of cancers, acne, and abnormal bleedings.
  • Metformin treat PCOS by improving insulin levels

2.To Induce Ovulation

  • Anti-estrogen medications
  • Drugs to treat breast cancers

3.To treat symptoms

Prescribed drugs to treat facial hair and acne.

4.Surgery

Takeaway message

All these points suggest that PCOS is a widespread disease among reproductive women, and due to advancements in technology and medications, it is a treatable disease. Early interventions can result in average hormonal balances along with regular Ovulation and menstrual cycle. Somebody can also avoid infertility by maintaining hormonal balances and Ovulation. At the same time, other symptoms of facial hair and acne can also be treated with cosmetic interventions.

If you have been suffering from irregular or missed periods for a while, then there is nothing to worry about if you follow few instructions

  • See your doctor
  • Go through a complete clinical examination, lab tests, and ultrasound
  • Maintain a good and healthy lifestyle
  • Do not worry, as it is treatable
  • Reduce your weight and increase your physical activity
  • Take your medicines regularly

If you follow these instructions in case of missed or heavy periods, you can treat your PCOS without any complications and infertility.

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